知识品牌：Jobs To Be Done v.s. ODI
Since 1991, my consulting company Strategyn and I have engaged in over 1000 projects with Fortune 500 companies to evolve ODI into a proven innovation process. With an 86% success rate, ODI helps companies take their marketing and innovation capabilities to the next level.
While executives, managers and entrepreneurs agree that the goal of innovation is to create products and services that address unmet customer needs, companies struggle to predictably create winning products because they fail to define their customers’ needs with the rigor, precision, and discipline that is required to discover, prioritize and capitalize on opportunities for growth.
In most companies, managers do not agree on what a “need” even is. As a result, when it comes to innovation, marketing and development managers struggle to reach agreement on what the customer’s needs are, which of those needs are unmet, and to what degree. They also struggle to discover segments of customers with unique sets of unmet needs.
Underlying Process v.s. Job
In 1991, Strategyn proposed a solution to this problem: to gain deep insight into the customer’s needs, companies should stop focusing on the product and the customer and instead aim to understand the “underlying process” (or “job” as Christensen later called it) the customer is trying to execute when they are using a product or service.
The theory holds that to create a product or service that customers will want, companies must first understand what fundamental measures of performance those customers use to measure success when getting the job done. To obtain this understanding, Strategyn suggests that companies break down the customer’s underlying “job-to-be-done” into discrete process steps and ascertain from them what must be measured and controlled to ensure the job is executed with the speed, predictability, and effectiveness they desire. Strategyn calls these uniquely constructed performance metrics the customers’ desired outcomes. They possess distinctive characteristics (measurable, controllable, stable over time, devoid of solutions, multi-purpose) that make them the perfect need statement and the perfect input into in the innovation process.
With insight into which of the customer’s 100 or more desired outcomes are underserved, companies are able to focus their marketing and ideation efforts on specific targets and then evaluate their ideas against those same performance metrics to determine if their ideas for new products will help the customer get the job done better. Knowing whether or not a new product concept/idea will help the customer get the job done significantly better, in advance of product development, is key to ensuring the predictability of the innovation process.
Strategyn’s first application of this methodology was completed in a 1991 engagement with the medical device company Cordis Corporation. The challenge: to reinvent Cordis’s line of angioplasty balloon products. Strategyn led the effort to interview interventional cardiologists to break down and analyze the underlying process they went through to “restore blood flow in a blocked artery.” The customer’s desired outcomes were revealed, prioritized and addressed. By mid-1993, Cordis launched 19 new products, all of which became number 1 or 2 in the market. Cordis’ market share increased from 1 percent to more than 20 percent, and its stock price more than quadrupled.
What Customers Want
Cordis is one of hundreds of successes that companies have achieved in the years since using this innovation process, which Strategyn calls Outcome-Driven Innovation® (ODI).
Six of these successes are described in detail in my latest book, JOBS TO BE DONE: Theory to Practice (Ulwick, October 2016).
The original book I wrote on the subject,
What Customers Want, which was released in 2005, offers foundational insights into the ODI process and additional case studies.
I introduced ODI to Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen in 1999 (see the video).
Christensen later popularized the theory in his book, The Innovator’s Solution (2003), labeling it “jobs-to-be-done theory” and citing Strategyn and its practices.
Today, we also refer to the theory as “jobs-to-be-done theory” and describe ODI as the process that puts the theory into practice. Others have since attempted to create other methods to put the theory into practice, but none have delivered the level of success that we have achieved.
Strategyn has designed ODI from the ground up to transform innovation from an art into a science. The process is comprised of the six steps defined below (see Figure 1). The ODI process incorporates unconventional qualitative and quantitative market research techniques that yield predictive data and a sophisticated market segmentation methodology that helps companies discover and prioritize hidden market opportunities.
ODI-based research explains how, specifically, a company should innovate to undermine the established leaders or maintain a leadership position. Most importantly, the ODI process informs companies how to create products and services that customers will want to buy — and predict which new products will succeed.
Twelve patents issued.
Needs-based mapping and processing engine: 8,666,977
A mechanism is disclosed that dramatically minimizes the time it takes to gather needs, dramatically minimizes the expense it takes to gather those needs, and ensures those statements are formulated in manner that comply with a set of rules designed to ensure the right inputs are used in downstream strategy formulation, marketing, product development, and related company workflows. In addition, the mechanism may or may not minimize the time it takes for a company to acquire the capability to uncover these needs statements.
G06Q30/0201 Market data gathering, market analysis or market modelling