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Power Distance is a society or cultures acceptance to the fact that power is distributed unequally.
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This study investigated hospital employees’ attitudes toward existing power distance in their workplace and the effect it has on them in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals, questionnaires were taken by 306 managers and employees then analyzed. The data showed that employees prefer low power distance because it increases job satisfaction and commitment, participate more in their division, and communicate more in the workplace.
The is article is connected to the Exchange Theory, this is when people are asked to exchange something such as time to obtain the benefits of a product of service. In this article, the employees of this hospital are asking for low power distance in exchange for more commitment, participation, and communication.
This article included a case study of foreign engineers traveling to Ghana and building sanitization facilities. Some power distance issues encountered; foreign engineers expected the citizens to express their opinions of the project but only elders and the chief spoke their thoughts, if people did speak their opinions they preferred not to express it if it conflicted with another’s opinion. This culture had a high power distance where subordinates abide by what seniors tell them, whereas engineers came from areas of low power distance. In conclusion cultural differences impact cross-cultural business, problems arise in communication and participation.
This article is connected to the concept of Socialization, this is the process of learning how to behave in a society or culture. In this case study, the engineers found that the citizens had certain learned cultural rules when it came to speaking their opinions.
This study wants to prove the hypothesis that cultural practices influence patients and their physicians understanding of colorectal cancer screening, they examined 44 videotapes of visits involving this cancer screening recommendations, and transcripts of conversations between the patient and doctor following this visit. The study concluded that themes such as power distance affected the patient’s definition of effective communication with their provider, for example low power distance made the patients trust the doctor more and easily communicate their thoughts.
This article is connected to the Pathways Model, this is when communication can directly affect outcomes or bring improved health through indirect means. In this article, small power distance allowed patients to trust their doctors and communicate easily, this improved their health because they are more open to the doctors advice more engaged in the topic of improving their health.
This article conducted an experiment in which 14 English and 12 non-English teachers from a southern Chinese university were the subjects of 1,172 student questionnaires and 26 classes which were observed and analyzed. It was found that the power distance of English teachers was lower than non-English, this was caused by their major of English. The difference in power distance cause drastic differences in classroom communication, English teachers talked less in class and invited students questions more, while non-English teachers spoke the majority of the time and was less welcoming to student questions.
This article is connected to the concept of Localism, this is the process of sharing powers with individuals so everyone has a voice and control is dispersed around members of an audience. In this study it was concluded that English teachers with a small power distance gave their student much more communicative control in the class, allowing them to talk half of the time and welcoming their questions.
This paper looks at behavioral implications in power distance, specifically the impact of distance on employee participation, communication, and discipline. The study finds that in high power distance employees are unwilling to participate in discussions and allow their superior to make their decisions, there is a large communication gap between superiors and subordinates, this power distance also gives managers unlimited power over their subordinates. This study concludes that high power distance leads to less communication in the workplace especially between workers of different rank.
This article is connected to the Social Presence Theory, social presence is the awareness of the other person in a social interaction. The employees are intimidated by the high power distance, because of this intimidation they rarely communicate or have a social presence in the workplace.
After Heineken bought an operation in Mexico many workers have moved to the headquarters in Amsterdam, among them is the boss Carlos Gomez who have found there is a very small power distance in Amsterdam compared to Mexico.
Professor Laurent polled hundreds of managers worldwide asking if it’s important for managers to have answers to all questions, 45% of Japanese claimed yes while only 7% of Swedes did.
This article is connected to the economic imperative, this is the fact that businesses are globalizing and expanding to overseas markets. In this article, the company Heineken is located in Amsterdam but is expanding to Mexico. In this expansion, some Mexican workers transferred to the Amsterdam headquarters where they had cross-cultural communication issues related to a difference in power distance based on their cultures. Since businesses such as Heineken are globalizing, it is important for workers and managers to learn intercultural communication skills for the business to succeed.
Brazil has high levels of power distance which affects communication between superiors and subordinates in the workplace, and the subordinate’s level of job satisfaction. The data inferred that 36% of the respondents showed evidence that the level of power distance at the workplace affects their verbal communication with their superiors and their reflections on their job satisfaction, 19% showed that the power distance only affected their communication, 28% showed that the power distance made no impact on their communication.
This article is connected to the Theory of Relational Dialectics, these are unseen but influential forces in relationships. This article specifically connects with openness versus closeness, the employees are unsatisfied with their job because they are unable to be open and communicate freely with their superiors. The employees will be more satisfied if they are able to communicate with their superiors about their concerns, questions, and more.
This article aimed to answer the questions of whether differences in power distance and relationship quality play important roles in mentoring effectiveness, this experiment involved 210 employees from a technological communications company who completed a survey questionnaire. The experiment concluded that mentoring relationships are more effective and last longer when the power distance between the subordinate and protégé is low, the relationship is also stronger when the quality is higher.
This article is connected to the Social Exchange Theory, this states that we choose to maintain relationships that increase our rewards and minimize our costs. In the article, it is concluded that mentor relationships are more effective and last longer when the quality of the relationship is higher and the power distance is smaller. This is because costs will be minimized such as effort to maintain the relationship when it is weak, with a good quality relationship this effort is minimized and the reward of an informative mentor is increased.
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